A Country Report and Profile — Republic of Uzbekistan

The concept of transition of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the market economy consists of five principles formulated by its President Islam Karimov:

1. Economy should have priority over politics. Economic reforms should not follow the lead of political processes.

2. The State is the main reformer. The representatives of legally elected authorities have to determine priorities and pursue balanced policy of  no social shocks.

3. Along with economic reforms it is necessary to create a system of social  protection of the Republic population especially of most vulnerable groups.

4. Superiority of Law and Constitution.

5. Stage by stage movement to the market economy. The transition to next stage only after the current stage targets have been met..

Break Event Point

PODSTAWOWE DEFINICJE

Jak wynika z badań nad przepływami pienężnymi (CASH FLOW) przychody z działalności podstawowej, ktуre stanowią rуżnicę pomiędzy przychodami i kosztami wpływają w zasadniczy sposуb na płynność finansową, w konsekwencji zaś na wielkość zysku netto.

Nie wiemy jednak czy relacja pomiędzy przychodami i kosztami jest opłacalna (efektywna) i bezpieczna dla dalszej działalności gospodarczej? Aby na tak postawione pytania odpowiedzieć, posłużmy się analizą progu rentowności.

Country Study, Hungary

Introduction to Hungary’s political history

Hungary has had a long and volatile history of political and economic change.  Hungary as a organized society dates back  before 1000 AD and has been ruled by different monarchies and foreign regimes every since.  This brief introduction  will outline Hungary’s political and economic history starting with Hungary’s “Post-1945 World War II era”.

During WWII Hungary fell under German control until the end of the war.  After Germany’s defeat in WWII,  a commission was established among allied forces (American, Soviet, and British) in which had ultimate sovereignty over the country.  However, since the leader of the commission was a member of Stalin’s inner circle, the Soviets exercised absolute control.(Wash. Post., 1)         The Government that was provisionally instituted in Hungary after WWII was shortly dissolved and  the Hungarian Communist Party replaced them in the 1945 elections. 

Country Study, Slovenia: Winning the Transitional Economies Race

INTRODUCTION

             Five years ago a small republic  of the former Yugoslavia, started on its path of transition from  an eastern block socialist government with a planned economy to a democratic government with a free market economy.  Fortunately, the rocky road, described by the World Bank News in the quote above, has not been long for  Slovenia.   Although Slovenia was  the most prosperous Republic before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, after the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, Slovenia experienced  high levels of inflation,  a drop in the GDP and a tripling of the unemployment levels[1]. These problems did not stop Slovenia’s transition to an economic powerhouse in the former Eastern Bloc.  However, Slovenia had several advantages over other Eastern Bloc countries which aided in such a successful transition.   This  analysis will present both  Slovenia’s  historical and  current economic status by examining the political and economic background, budgetary and monetary conditions, expenditure policies and assignment, tax structure and administration, and social insurance. 

Protectionnism and Free Trade in Economical Doctrines

The theoretical basis of a study of international economic relations in its modern form was formed as a result of a long and difficult process, full of successes but, nevertheless, with important mistakes.

The early roots are to be found, perhaps, in Antic Greece in the works of Aristotel, Platon and Xenophon. In general, the antic philosophers opposed to the big commerce, supporting the idea of a closed domestic economy. The closed character of the production of a self-supply type, dominating from the antiquity up to 15th century gave no incentives for developing any profound and constant studies on international trade. In these conditions is in no way occasional that the theorists of antiquity and Middle Ages (scholastics) exaggerated the role of production (especially agricultural) and pleaded against the «art of making money», the chrematistics (after Aristotel).

Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

In 1978, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) embarked on the enormous undertaking of opening its doors to the outside world. Until this point in time,  the PRC had relied on a centralized economic system much like that of the former Soviet Union[1]. However, the PRC’s situation differed with the former Soviet Union in three substantial ways[2] 1) although  reforms followed the Cultural Revolution (which did exact its toll on the Chinese economy) there was an absence of severe macroeconomic crises when reforms were begun 2) agricultural infrastructure was good, although the incentives were poor  and  3) China had a strong presence of overseas Chinese and Hong Kong that influence its economic development and over the years supplied capital and human resources.

Russian Federation Country Study. A Public Finance Perspective

Political Background

The separation of powers which existed under the Soviet constitution was essentially a myth. A Russian accurately characterized the relationships that existed between party, state and society as, …The state absorbed the society, the Party absorbed the state, and the Party appartchiks, the nomenclature under the totalitarian leadership of the Secretary-General absorbed the Party.» Both legislative and judicial branches served as rubber stamps» to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet which unlike the Supreme Soviet itself was constantly in session. The development of political reform in the late 1980s weakened the party’s control over the reigns of power. The devolution of power from the Presidium occurred through the creation of the office of the President which received the executive powers while the legislative powers were assigned to Congress of Peoples Deputies. The judicial branch also achieved higher visibility during the late Soviet period through the creation of the Committee on Constitutional Supervision. The Soviet Union’s collapse in 1992 introduced radical changes into all aspects of Russian society. Russia has little experience with democracy in any form. Without a strong democratic tradition, it should not be unexpected that instability would develop in all aspects of Russian life. The role of governmental finance in post-Soviet society is no exception. Competing explanations exist for Russia’s travails but a shared trait of many them is the distribution of power at the federal level and the relationship between the federal and sub-national levels of government.

Transitional Success: USSR to EU

Table of Contents

I.          Introduction

II.        Political Summary: Restructuring for Transition

III.       Transition to Market Economy: 1990 — 1991

IV.       Problems of Transitional Monetary Policy and the Financial Sector: An Overview

V.        Macro Economic Stability: 1993 — present

VI.       Monetary Policy: 1993

VII.     Intergovernmental Financial Relations

VIII.    Budgetary Overview: 1993 — present

IX.       Tax Reform

X.        Current Political Economic Considerations: 1996

XI.       The EU and NATO

XII.     Conclusions

XIII.    References

Экономическая конкуренция. Её формы и роль в развитии экономики

Содержание

Введение …………………………………………………………………  3

1      Сущность конкуренции ……………………………………………. 5

2      Функции конкуренции ……………………………………………..  6

3      Основные модели рынка …………………………………………… 7

3.1       Свободная (чистая) конкуренция …………………………… 7

3.2       Монополия ……………………………………………………. 8

3.3       Олигополия …………………………………………………… 9

3.4       Чистая монополия ……………………………………………. 10

4      Способы ведения конкурентной борьбы …………………………. 10

4.1       Добросовестная и недобросовестная конкуренция ………… 11

4.2       Патент как стимул промышленного шпионажа ……………. 12

4.3       Современный экономический шпионаж ……………………  12

4.4       Промышленный шпионаж и фальсификация
готовой продукции …………………………………………….         14

5      Основные направления и инструменты регулирования
конкуренции государством …………………………………………          16

6      Значение конкуренции ……………………………………………… 18

Заключение ……………………………………………………………… 20

Список литературы ………………………………………………………          21

«ЮКОС» — история и перспективы

История компании «ЮКОС».

В конце 1991 года, после распада СССР, нефтяной комплекс России представлял собой множество разрозненных предприятий, каждое из которых действовало исходя из собственных интересов. Главным направлением реформы стало создание вертикально-интегрированных нефтяных компаний, работающих по принципу «от скважины — до бензоколонки». Предприятия, входящие в такую компанию, должны были составить единую технологическую цепочку: одни проводят геологоразведку, другие добывают нефть, третьи ее перерабатывают, четвертые — продают. Все взаимосвязаны и работают на общий результат. Одной из вертикально-интегрированных компаний стал ЮКОС.